Duke University Medical Center has had an exemplary history in medical physics research, education, and service. The Radiology Department currently maintains distinguished radiology residency and fellowship programs. The Imaging Physics Residency exhibits a co-linear relationship with the Radiology residency program. Even though they have different administrative structures (the Radiology residency program is under the GME, while the Imaging Physics Residency program is sponsored by the School of Medicine) the two programs work together on inter-related projects, such as physics lecture series and Grand Rounds. They are also joined together as equal entities in the Radiology Department strategic plan.

The Duke University Medical Center also recently launched a comprehensive Medical Physics Graduate Program offering MS and PhD degrees in both diagnostic and therapeutic medical physics, and is accredited through the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs, Inc. (CAMPEP). The Medical Physics Graduate Program, is the third largest such program in North America with over 100 graduate students and over 50 faculty members. The program offers an extensive array of basic and advanced medical physics graduate courses, which are open to imaging physics residents.

Another asset of Duke University Hospital, and allied with this program, is the Clinical Imaging Physics Group (CIPG). Started in 2008, the CIPG consists of eleven staff physicists, two post-graduate trainees and multiple medical physics interns providing clinical physics support for imaging operations at Duke University Medical Center. The imaging physics residents have access to clinical resources and testing equipment through the CIPG. One of the duties of the CIPG staff is to supervise and educate the imaging physics residents on the safe and proper use of clinical equipment as well as to ensure equipment is left in the proper state for clinical use.

The Duke Imaging Physics Residency Program received its initial CAMPEP Accreditation in 2016.

The Duke Imaging Physics Residency Program was re-accredited in 2020 through 2025, CAMPEP Accreditation.